AUTOCRYPT Demonstrates Interoperability in China’s Largest “Four Layers” C-V2X Demonstration Following Showcase at 2021 China-SAE Congress and Exhibition

SHANGHAI, CHINA, Oct. 28, 2021 — Leading automotive and mobility cybersecurity provider AUTOCRYPT Co., Ltd. demonstrated the interoperability of its AutoCrypt V2X security solution at the C-V2X Cross-Industry Pilot Plugfest, China’s largest “Four Layers” C-V2X application testing event, held alongside the 2021 China-SAE Congress and Exhibition (SAECCE) in Shanghai from October 19 to 21. 

The annual “Four Layers” C-V2X interoperability demonstration is organized by IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group C-V2X Working Group and China-SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), gathering OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers from around the world. This year’s C-V2X demonstration was held on test roads across the Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi metropolitan area, one of China’s major ITS hubs. 

four layers of c-v2x interoperability

The “Four Layers” of interoperability refers to the physical layer (vehicle), network layer (on-board units or OBUs), message layer (communication modules), and security layer (V2X modules and key management). In the demonstration, AutoCrypt V2X’s software development kit (SDK) was embedded in the OBUs of a major Tier 1 supplier, while its Security Credential Management System (SCMS) was paired with one of the eight participating root certificate authorities (CA).  

“The successful completion of the demonstration continues to confirm the interoperability of AutoCrypt V2X in the C-ITS environment,” said Daniel ES Kim, AUTOCRYPT’s Co-Founder and CEO. “As the V2X security provider for all eight full-scale C-ITS projects in South Korea, AUTOCRYPT has worked closely with OEMs and chipmakers across the globe, and our team is highly experienced in adapting to the specific needs and requirements of each client.” 

Along with the demonstration, AUTOCRYPT showcased its latest technologies and offered consultations at SAECCE 2021, where its technical experts made two key presentations, one of which explained the role of Plug&Charge (PnC) security for smart EV charging, while the other provided guidance to OEMs on how to incorporate in-vehicle security systems to meet both WP.29 and Chinese regional regulations. 

This marks AUTOCRYPT’s third consecutive year of participation in the dual events. To find out more about AUTOCRYPT’s comprehensive mobility security solutions, contact global@autocrypt.io.

Top 7 Smart Cities and Their ITS Achievements

The Challenge of Megacities

As the fourth industrial revolution continues to transform the global economy, people around the world are flocking to cities in the seemingly never-ending urbanization trend. Apart from global cities like New York and London, nearly every regional population center around the world is experiencing population growth, forcing these cities to expand into nearby suburbs by building new roads and infrastructure.

Consequently, the problem with expanding outwards is that these cities become so large, forcing their residents to travel long distances on a daily basis – not just for work, but also for social gatherings, shopping, and recreational activities. This puts significant strain on roads and highways, leading to constant traffic jams and frequent accidents.

Many suggest public transportation as a solution. Indeed, well-operated subway and buses may be convenient for inner-city travel, but for a megacity with a dozen satellite cities surrounding the core, building public transportation becomes expensive, and usually takes decades of construction. Moreover, let us be honest, a 20-station subway ride might not necessarily be a better alternative to being stuck in traffic.

Hence, we should not blindly blame the municipal governments for not building more subway lines, expecting public transportation to solve all problems. Even though public transportation is great for short to medium distance travel, but for long-distance trips, we must address the problem at its roots: to improve roads and infrastructure.

Smart City and the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

Improving roads does not simply mean adding additional lanes, because wide roads and highways can lead to excessive lane hopping and cause even more delays. Thus, instead of making wider roads, a better alternative would be to make smarter roads. 

Building smarter roads has become a crucial project for smart cities. That is, to build roads and transportation infrastructure that collect data generated from daily traffic, then analyze and learn these data to improve the usability, effectiveness, and accessibility of the roads and infrastructure. These smart roads and infrastructure are collectively called the intelligent transportation system (ITS).

In this article, we will look at a list of smart cities in the world and their special contributions and achievements in advancing the ITS.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong has long been a global financial center and transportation hub that sits at the center of the Asia-Pacific region. Despite having more than 7 million residents, the city had very limited land for suburban expansion due to its administrative and physical geography. This forced the city to build a sophisticated network of roads and highways, with roughly 800,000 registered vehicles sharing over 2,000 km of road – nearly 400 vehicles for every kilometer. Due to such pressure, Hong Kong became one of the first cities in the world to adopt an Area Traffic Control (ATC) system. The system uses CCTVs installed at signalized intersections to provide real-time information on traffic flow. The traffic controllers then analyze such information to gain insights on where accidents frequently occur and adjust traffic signal lengths optimized for both motorists and pedestrians.

Sydney

Like Hong Kong’s ATC system, the capital of the Australian state of New South Wales has gone a step further by developing an Adaptive Traffic Signal Control (ATSC) system that is capable of adapting to the real-time situation. Patented and owned by New South Wales, the system is hence named the Sydney Coordinate Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS). SCATS adjusts the timings of green and red signals based on the real-time traffic flow of each direction. Hence instead of having fixed time durations for each signal, an optimized duration is calculated in real-time using the data collected by CCTVs as well as sensors built into the ground. Apart from New South Wales, SCATS is currently installed in almost all signalized traffic intersections in Australia, as well as over 55,000 intersections across 187 cities and 28 countries worldwide.

Singapore

As a city-state, Singapore’s issue is very similar to that of Hong Kong. With over 5.7 million residents living in a land area of only two-thirds of that of Hong Kong, the city’s government had no choice but to discourage personal vehicle ownership by enforcing a 100% import tariff and additional registration fees that bring the cost up to three to four times the market value. Nevertheless, Singapore has also adopted a sophisticated ITS in more recent years. To manage the ITS, the city introduced i-Transport, an integrated platform that stores and manages raw data collected from the traffic sensors. Its major role is to analyze these data into useful information to help road development and planning. The i-Transport platform has enabled a variety of useful services, including the Parking Guidance System (PGS). The PGS collects real-time information on leftover parking spots in nearby parking lots and displays this information on large digital information panels on the roadside so that drivers can easily find the nearest parking lot without having to circle around downtown streets looking for available parking space. As Singapore’s ITS continues to make its roads smarter, hopefully, the government will be able to slowly relieve the astronomical costs of purchasing cars.

Las Vegas

Cities in North America face a very different problem than that of Hong Kong and Singapore. Since most cities have plenty of space surrounding them for urban expansion, a North American “city” is usually a large metropolitan area that interconnects dozens of cities and towns. To put it in perspective, despite San Francisco proper being home to only 900,000 residents, nearly 5 million people live in its metropolitan area. Since these cities are bigger, their local streets tend to be less crowded. However, the highways that go through them face constant congestion, especially when a highway acts as both the inner-city highway and the interstate highway, like the Ontario 401 – the busiest highway on the continent. The biggest problem for American highways is that they have too many lanes. Las Vegas has an interesting solution to organize traffic on these highways. Its Active Traffic Management (ATM) system consists of large, high-resolution digital panels on top of the highways. The system uses cameras and sensors to collect big data and analyze them so that they can accurately estimate traffic conditions and travel times for each individual lane. It then displays the average speed ahead for each individual lane, as well as putting an “X” above lanes that are closed ahead due to traffic accidents or constructions. The ATM system helps drivers make informed decisions on which lanes to use and when to switch lanes without having to blindly change lanes back and forth.

New York

With over 20 million residents in its metropolitan area, New York City is by far the most populous urban center of the United States. This has pushed the Big Apple to develop an ITS that focuses on smoothing traffic. Recently, New York City signed a contract with Transition Networks, an IoT manufacturer, to add internet connections to the cameras and sensors of over 10,000 signalized traffic intersections across the city. These connected devices allow for centralized management and remote maintenance, reducing the need for any physical workers to be present on site.

Barcelona

Barcelona has been a leader of smart city transformation in Europe. Over the past decade, all the streetlights in Barcelona have been replaced by an LED-based lighting system. The system can automatically adjust its brightness and angle based on environmental information like temperature, humidity, pollution, and visibility. It is also capable of detecting noise so that the lamps can switch on and off depending on the existence of pedestrians. Not only does this new lighting system save energy, but it also reduces the heat generated by conventional lamps.

Jeju

This island city of South Korea is one of the world’s pioneers in developing a Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS). Different from ITS, which uses collected data to provide useful information, a C-ITS involves real-time exchange of information between roads, infrastructure, and the vehicles themselves, making it a crucial part of the autonomous driving experience. The city has also introduced a number of C-ITS devices that can be installed into cars, providing drivers with real-time information on the roads ahead, warning drivers on emergency vehicles passing by, road closure, and even slippery road conditions (based on data collected from other vehicles). To learn more about C-ITS, read: 7 Major Functions of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems.

AutoCrypt V2X, Securing Data for C-ITS

As advancements in automotive technology bring us connected cars and autonomous driving.  smart cities are taking a step further to develop C-ITS with the goal of establishing a safe and seamless experience of connectivity on the road. Yet, autonomous driving has also brought us a new challenge; since data involved in C-ITS directly impact vehicle behaviour, they must be safely guarded against manipulation and theft.

This is one of the main reasons AUTOCRYPT was founded. As a built-in software development kit, AutoCrypt V2X uses sophisticated encryption and authentication technologies to ensure that all V2X-enabled units are verified and all data in transmission are safely protected. 

To keep informed with the latest news on mobility tech and automotive cybersecurity, subscribe to AUTOCRYPT’s monthly newsletter.

7 Major Functions of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems

Autonomous Driving: The Bigger Picture

What comes to mind first when you think of autonomous driving? Most likely we would think about self-driving cars with adaptive cruising technology like Tesla Autopilot. Indeed, adaptive cruising supported by sensors and cameras is a core component of autonomous driving. Yet this is only a small part of the bigger picture. In fact, no matter how advanced and sophisticated adaptive cruising technology becomes, there will always be room for error to occur in situations like extreme weather events and unexpected road conditions.

Therefore, the vehicle alone is not sufficient to ensure a perfectly safe and seamless autonomous driving experience. To complete the full picture, cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is needed to ensure that every vehicle on the road knows exactly what they need to know at the right time and the right place.

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Before looking at C-ITS, let us first look at what intelligent transport systems (ITS) are. These are the systems that collect and analyze data to improve the driving experience as well as to regulate traffic. Examples of ITS include the modern GPS navigation system which provides drivers with real-time information on traffic levels, estimated travel times, traffic accidents, road constructions, and even locations of traffic enforcement cameras. Another interesting ITS is the left-turn lane sensor, which are sensors embedded on the grounds of the left-turn lane at intersections, so that the left-turn signal would only turn on when needed.

C-ITS are simply more advanced ITS where vehicles and other road entities share their data to “cooperate” with each other on the road. Such cooperation is made possible by V2X (vehicle-to-everything) technology, which allows vehicles to communicate directly with infrastructures (V2I), pedestrians (V2P), and the greater network (V2N).

In a previous blog article, we have discussed in detail on what V2X technology is and how it is applied. To read that article, see: DSRC vs. C-V2X: A Detailed Comparison of the 2 Types of V2X Technologies. Today, we are here to look at seven of the major functionalities and benefits of C-ITS and how they paint the full picture of autonomous driving.

1. Collecting driving data

All kinds of driving data – including location, speed, time, and vehicle condition – are collected from the vehicles’ on-board units. These data (when given consent by the owners) will be stored a data center accessible by transportation regulators and infrastructure developers to help enhance transportation infrastructure and road safety. Sometimes, automakers (OEMs) also collect data of their cars to further improve their models with software updates and hardware improvements.

2. Exchanging real-time information on traffic

As vehicles share their location and speed with each other, a massive transportation network consisting of real-time data is formed. Every vehicle can then utilize the collective information on the current traffic flows and even analyze them to predict future traffic conditions in the next few hours. This allows all vehicles to choose an optimized route for their destination, significantly reducing traffic jams while saving time and money spent in traffic.

3. Exchanging real-time information on road hazards

Traffic data are not enough to guarantee road safety. With C-ITS, vehicles receive data on a wide range of information on road conditions, including road surface temperature, humidity, and buildup of snow and rain from precipitations. Vehicles are also warned of curvy and slopy roads, road breakage, as well as areas where traffic accidents frequently occur. Lastly, information on emergency road maintenance and road construction gets shared with vehicles to make sure that they are well-informed of road hazards and respond safely by reducing speed or detouring.

4. Exchanging real-time information on vehicle hazards

The smart traffic network also collects live information on dangerous vehicles such as trucks and buses, as well as those traveling at abnormally fast or slow speeds. Surrounding vehicles then get notified to stay aware of such hazards. In case accidents occur, vehicles behind will be directed to reduce their speed to prevent secondary accidents, because most traffic-related deaths involve secondary accidents. The locations of emergency vehicles are also shared so that other vehicles on the road can clear out a line ahead of time, allowing them to pass by quickly.

5. Directing traffic at intersections

Even though traffic lights are designed to protect the safety of cars and pedestrians at intersections, there are still conflicting situations where safety fully depends on the driver’s judgment. Take the left turn for example, drivers need to simultaneously pay attention to three different things: 1) the signal ahead, 2) cars traveling down from the opposite direction, and 3) pedestrians on the left-side crosswalk. One misjudgment can lead to danger. With C-ITS, this conflict resolution process gets sorted out automatically, significantly improving safety at intersections.

6. Toll collection

Roadside infrastructure tracks the identities of vehicles entering toll roads. The respective toll fees then get deducted automatically from the financial accounts pre-registered to each vehicle, making the payment process seamless. Since there is no longer the need to slow down at toll stations, highway traffic jams can be partially relieved.

7. Pedestrian protection

The ultimate goal of autonomous driving is to guarantee the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. With C-ITS, vehicles are directed to slow down in both school zones and silver zones. With V2P technology, cars receive data from the pedestrians’ mobile devices so that even when the pedestrian is hidden in sight, the car can still prepare to stop ahead of time. This is especially useful at intersections where pedestrian-related accidents are most common.

The Importance of Data Security for C-ITS

Cooperative intelligent transport systems are supported by all kinds of data from drivers, vehicles, and infrastructures. Even though these data might not necessarily contain personally identifiable information (PII), information on a city’s transportation infrastructure can still be exploited by malicious actors to commit various crimes. Furthermore, the messages in transmission also needs to be protected to prevent manipulations, which could lead to severe physical damages.

AutoCrypt V2X is a software-based security solution that is built into the chipsets embedded in both on-board units and roadside units, helping protect data privacy while ensuring the accuracy of the shared messages. As a major mobility security supplier for OEMs, chipmakers, and infrastructure developers, AUTOCRYPT has been collaborating with the government in a number of C-ITS projects.

To keep informed with the latest news on mobility tech, automotive cybersecurity and cooperative intelligent transport systems, subscribe to AUTOCRYPT’s monthly newsletter.

Smart City, Smart Mobility

In this day and age, everything is connected. While the most basic devices of connectivity are already an integral part of our lives, there are other appliances and entities that are transcending the traditional viewpoint of what can be “connected” to a larger network. For example, Korean tech giant Samsung Electronics recently announced its new lineup of washing machines equipped with artificial intelligence. The machines are able to customize the laundry process in much less time, energy, and effort. Other new “smart” appliances include refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and even household mirrors, which are able to tell the time, weather, and even utilize facial recognition. With the expansion of connectivity and “smart” technology to household appliances, it was only a matter of time before this expanded into a larger framework.

This framework, precisely, is the concept of the “Smart City,” which is essentially a network of connected technology that transmits data in order to improve quality of life for citizens, corporations, and municipalities. The concept of the Smart City has various objectives that are summarized in these four areas: mobility and transportation, eco-friendly consciousness, safety and security, and social welfare.

Another term often thrown around in conversations regarding Smart Cities is “Smart Mobility,” because it encompasses so many of the same goals and ideas. Today we will explore the connections these two frameworks share through those mutual goals.

Mobility and Transportation

At the core, this goal encompasses the very centric idea of Smart Mobility: Smart Mobility seeks to improve the welfare of the citizen and society overall through the betterment of transport. Transportation, though, does not necessarily confine itself to the traditional ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) vehicle. In fact, Smart Mobility covers methods of transportation ranging from electric/connected vehicles, ride/car-sharing, public transportation, to walking/biking, and even the infrastructure and systems that surround them (e.g., parking, traffic congestion, sidewalks, etc.).

Smart Mobility is about flexible, convenient, and intelligent transportation, meaning that many aspects are connected in order to ensure that systems are streamlined and customized according to individual and societal needs. The idea has transformed the concept of how people approach transportation with more and more companies offering MaaS or Mobility-as-a-Service solutions. Mobility is now accessible to more people outside the traditional bubble of owning a personal vehicle or utilizing traditional public transportation.

Environmentally Conscious

Along with opening up mobility with connectivity and MaaS, Smart Mobility embraces the environment in terms of the cutting the usage of fossil fuels and energy consumption in general. This is why we see the market leaning more towards non-ICE vehicles: BEV (Battery Electric Vehicles), HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicles), or PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). In 2010, only about 17,000 electric vehicles were driving on roads, but in 2019 we saw that number increase to a staggering 7.2 million. Analysts say that this number is only set to keep growing.

Other methods of transportation like ride-sharing have increased in popularity as more people are looking to make their commutes efficient in terms of costs and carbon footprint. To double up on the benefits, many ride-sharing and taxi services are switching to EVs.

For those that do not necessarily drive or utilize motorized transportation, many governments are finding ways to ensure that their walking/biking citizens can still contribute to the smart city/smart mobility ecosystem by improving on their city infrastructure. For example, the city of Houston recently voted to clear the way for pedestrian-friendly and transit-oriented city development. The ordinance will “bring buildings closer to the street, expand sidewalk widths, add buffer zones between the sidewalks and the street and situate parking lots either beside or behind buildings.”

Safety/Security First

While the aforementioned type of ordinance will allow for walking and biking citizens to contribute to environmental benefits, it also helps to keep them safe with the increasing number of pedestrian deaths. According to the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA), pedestrian deaths accounted for 17% of all traffic-related deaths in 2019. With the growing number of connected and autonomous vehicles on the roads, it is even more crucial to have proper infrastructure in place so that sensors are able to more accurately capture obstructions so that this number decreases.

This brings us to the safety and security of autonomous vehicles. Globally, approximately 1.35 million people die in traffic-accidents each year. However, many of these accidents are preventable because accidents occur as a result of poor road infrastructure, in-vehicle issues, traffic law violation or nonexistent traffic laws, or driver behaviors.

With the advancement of autonomous vehicles and the transition into vehicle-control over human-driver focused driving, many of these pitfalls will help to lessen the number of casualties. But in order to do so we have to take into account that there is still great apprehension when it comes to wider adoption and implementation of AVs. This does not necessarily come out of left field as technology is still being developed, and Level 5 Autonomy (the highest level where no human interaction is required) is still about a decade away. With so much connectivity involved in the autonomous driving ecosystem, it is most definitely important to ensure that both on-road safety and cybersecurity solutions are in place to keep everyone safe. This is where manufacturers, organizations, and other entities in the automotive industry can step up to work together in order to standardize regulations and implement security from the manufacturing level so that when the time comes for Level 5 Autonomous Vehicles to hit the roads, that drivers, passengers, and pedestrians can feel like they are truly experiencing transportation in a risk-free smart city.

Social Welfare Focus

At the end of the day, initiatives like Smart City and Smart Mobility come down to offering citizens a higher standard of living – with mobility, this comes down to ensuring that all people from all backgrounds and abilities are able to go from place to place without significant challenges economically or physically.

These systems and services have yet to be widely implemented on a large enough scale, but we are seeing an increase in dedicated fleets for those who are unable to access the larger systems in place (e.g., public transportation, ride-sharing), though accessibility is an area of Smart City planning that still has many areas of needed improvement.

In terms of socioeconomic issues, transportation can be challenging because personal vehicles take a considerable amount of funds to purchase, and taxi fares and ride sharing can still be costly for those without a stable income. However, with increasing connectivity in city infrastructure as well as for autonomous/connected vehicles, we may see fares and costs starting to decrease. This is where municipalities and regulations can contribute policies and subsidies in order to speed up that process, investing in the future.


Analysts say that Smart Cities have the potential to give a tenfold return on public investments that are made into their citizens. For example, the McKinsey Global Institute found that using smart technology could reduce crime by 30-40%, reduce fatalities by 8-10%, and reduce response times for emergencies by 20-35%; all of these cut costs for governing and welfare institutions.

Therefore, the potential for the Smart Mobility future is not only an economically smart decision, but ultimately one that will better society. As technology continues to advance and connections abound, Smart Mobility will only continue to be a headlining issue at the forefront of the Smart City framework.

For more about AUTOCRYPT’s Smart Mobility initiatives through Fleet Management, click here. See our infographic on mobility challenges and accessibility in the areas of mobility, here.