Infographic: The Different Types of Electric Vehicles

The EV is an umbrella term for battery EVs, plug-in hybrids, hybrids, and fuel cell EVs. In this infographic we go through the different types of electric vehicles and their key differences.

(Accessibility version below)

types of electric vehicles

Electric Vehicles, or EVs, are all over the news. With demands on the rise dueto environmental concerns, we have seen many more EVs in the news and on the road.

But did you know? An EV is in reality, an umbrella term. Despite what many may think, EVs can still have a traditional combustion engine as well as a battery-powered motor, and can even generate electricity without plugging into a charge point.

Take a look at the different types of electric vehicles (EVs) and all the different components they utilize to operate properly on the road.

  1. HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle
    • Utilizes traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) with electric propulsion, meaning that the ICE charges the batteries to power the electric motor
    • Still requires fuel to operate, though it has a higher fuel economy than ICE vehicles
    • Less carbon emissions than ICE vehicles
    • Heavier weight because of the components involved
  2. FCEV – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
    • Fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen to product electricity, which runs the motor
    • The battery captures braking energy, conserving extra power to smooth out power from the fuel cell
    • Emissions are simply water vapor and warm air
    • Vehicles can be more expensive and difficult to refuel due to the lack of fuel stations
  3. PHEV – Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
    • PHEVs can be charged for power, and runs mostly on the electric motor
    • Still utilizes fuel to power the ICE, but the engine is considered backup
    • Prices can be higher than other vehicles
    • Less fuel consumption, less carbon emissions
    • Heavier weight due to the components involved
  4. BEV – Battery Electric Vehicle
    • No ICE, powered by electricity only. The vehicle plugs into a charge point to recharge the battery
    • No emissions, and lower maintenance
    • Charging can take time, and range anxiety can limit driving distance
    • Prices can be higher than conventional ICE vehicles, but more affordable models are launching as demand rises.

Secure it First. No matter what your vehicle is fueled by, without proper protocols in place, systems can be more vulnerable to cyberattacks. EVs are no exception. Particularly for BEVs, communication between the vehicle and charge point, as well as its servers, could pass along sensitive information like 1) Credit card / payment information, 2) Personal Identification Information (PII), and 3) Vehicle data.

Ensure that your charge point operator and mobility operator’s systems are in compliance with ISO-15118 standards for V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) communication. This will ensure that both the vehicle and charger’s certificates are verified and safely delivered, making your EV ride a secure one.

AutoCrypt PnC secures the EV and its supply equipment during the Plug&Charge process, providing secure communication and certificate management. For more information, visit our product page!

Why COVID-19 Has Made Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Security Even More of a Necessity

When the concept of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) began and companies and organizations began their research and implementation into EV systems, the main aim was to have an optimal energy management system. EVs, when charging bidirectionally, would not only maintain a minimum charge but balance the grid and minimize emission. The system’s goal is twofold: to increase efficiency in terms of renewable energy sources and costs, and simultaneously balance the demand for electricity on the grid. While no one could have imagined the paradigm shift that would occur worldwide through COVID-19, industries, and even new technologies are now trying to shift and evolve in order to meet the demands of the millions whose lives must go on in terms of their household, career, and transportation. With work-from-home (WFH) and social distancing deemed “the new normal,” there’s an increasing number of people who have no choice but to work and communicate remotely, meaning, technologies like V2G and consequently V2G security may now be more necessary than ever before.

V2G for Customers and Businesses

From March to April 2020, 30 million Americans filed for unemployment. The growing figures are an obvious sign of how many are facing financial strain due to COVID-19. However, at least for EV owners with Plug & Charge (PnC) capabilities, their electric bills may be minimized by using smart charge systems. For bi-directional PnC users with charging points in their homes, because their vehicles are spending more time parked in the garage than driving on the road, their batteries have more of the capacity to be used to power the grid. This can be good news for clients who are spending more time at home powering their laptops, entertainment systems, and home appliances while WFH, but do not necessarily have the financial means to be beholden to surge pricing.

For businesses with EV charging points, management of their services during the COVID-19 pandemic remains crucial – with an unbalanced supply chain (weakening demand in some industries with skyrocketing demand in others) and increasing financial pressures, PnC allows for businesses to set limits on energy consumption and avoid surge pricing, allowing them to maintain operations. Especially for start-ups or small businesses, minimizing operations costs is crucial: estimates show that more than 100,000 small businesses have permanently closed due to the pandemic.

Both customers and businesses can enjoy the benefits of PnC, as most offer real-time data available through an app or online platform. This can further allow users to optimize their charging during off-peak hours and maximize financial returns.

V2G Security

However, as with all connected technology, the technology itself is only half of the equation. With increased usage comes even more temptations for tampering. All parties involved from manufacturers, Mobility Operators (MO) all the way to Charge Point Operators (CPO) must ensure that the connections that the charge points are safe from intruders — because like it or not, owning a connected vehicle comes with social responsibility.

The most obvious damage that uninvited “guests” may wreak is through tampering with the payment systems. PnC allows for easy, streamlined payment, which means everything is done through payment methods and membership registration information already in the system. With loose security regulations, this could mean that payment systems could be hijacked without anyone ever knowing. During a critical time such as this, it is definitely not in anyone’s best interest to be hacked, left with an even thinner wallet than before. This is why AutoCrypt, in accordance with the international ISO 15118 Standard ensures that encryption and digital signatures are implemented to protect vehicles during charging.

The second concern is one that may fly under the radar, but EVs and V2G focus on the exchange of data – the time of day, the amount of charge, the pricing, and the payment methods for the vehicles and the charging points. Data monetization is becoming more and more lucrative as more EVs and connected cars hit the market and the economy suffers further due to COVID-19 — and in the wrong hands, this could mean loss of privacy and even in worst-case scenarios, data terrorism.

These are just a couple of reasons why AUTOCRYPT not only provides a comprehensive security solution, but is constantly working with manufacturers, MOs, and CPOs to ensure that customers on and off the road are able to keep safe in this connected car era. In a time where things are unpredictable, perhaps it would be safe to say that no one wants the security of your vehicle and wallet put into that group as well.

Stay safe, wash your hands, and keep your connections secure.

Welcome to the World of V2G

Electric Vehicles are no longer a future premise… In fact, from 2012 to 2018, global plug-in vehicle deliveries grew by 46-69%, and it’s likely that this growth will continue. We see EVs on the road and charging points in parking garages, and while the concept seems to be comparable to charging a mobile phone—plug it in, wait, and go… is the process really that simple?

In reality, charging a car involves several parties:

1. The OEM manufacturer who made the vehicle

2. The CPO that provides the Charge Point, similar to a gas pump for non-electric vehicles

3. The MO that registers members to be users for the charging service

This MO does not own the charging point itself, but builds the interface and the system required to use it. The MO is the party that has contact with the actual customers, and receives and maintains their charging data and information. The CPO, who owns the charge points, relays the operations of its station to the MO, and pays the network usage fee.

Users need to be certified by the OEM, MO, and CPO and then deliver the certificates to the V2G infrastructure in order to have the ecosystem ready for charging.

cpo mo oem process

While this may sound and look to be quite complicated, for the end-user, it’s quite simple. Plugin the charger at a nearby charging station, and then go—Plug & Charge (PnC). Just like a mobile phone, the process has been streamlined. All the certification, verification, and payment processing happen in an instant behind the scenes, and AUTOCRYPT V2G keeps those processes secure.

But what happens when the security landscape is always changing? From the early stages of the EV, AUTOCRYPT has been ready to bring solutions and products to the table, taking on the future era of EVs.

This also means that it has been and continues to be crucial to continue testing for compliance with not just domestic, but international standards, manufacturers, and guidelines around the world as this is an era that is constantly evolving. AUTOCRYPT has participated in several testing symposiums to meet international standards, and we continue to conduct interoperability testing with various companies. AUTOCRYPT has also been invited to share its unique V2G technology all over the world, as industries and organizations worldwide are increasingly eager to get into the conversation about EVs and the need for security, standardization, and quick integration.

AUTOCRYPT V2G ensures that your EV experience is a seamless one, letting you spend more time on the road without compromising your safety and security. For more on how the V2G experience works with AUTOCRYPT, click to watch our video below!