From EV to Autonomous Driving: A Look Into the Mobility Industry in 2022

2022 was a turbulent year for the mobility industry. As the economy has been recovering back to its pre-pandemic state, we have seen a surge of technological advancements that are shaping the industry.

To commemorate the end of the year we have carefully analyzed the market and gathered four key insights to discuss the biggest trends of 2022 and see what the trajectory for the future of the mobility industry looks like. 

1. The tipping point in EV adoption 

In 2022 we have seen the catastrophic impact of the climate crisis on our planet. The world was struck by extreme heatwaves in Europe, hurricanes across multiple US states, and monsoon floodings in Asia. The intensity of these devastating climate disasters has been increasing as a result of climate change. And as the global climate crisis continues to unfold governments are taking action to tackle the dangers of climate change by rolling out net-zero carbon emission policies to accelerate the road to decarbonization.

One of the largest industries contributing to the climate crisis is transportation, which is responsible for 20% of carbon emissions worldwide. Decarbonizing the mobility and transportation sector is imperative in reaching net-zero goals, and electrifying the roads is the most effective way to do so. Electric vehicles have been at the forefront of the transition in the mobility industry. As the world strives toward net-zero emissions, governments are increasingly pushing for electric vehicle (EV) adoption through subsidies and related policies. Europe and the United States are leading way with regulatory targets of reaching a 50% EV market share by 2030. On the other side of the spectrum, consumers are becoming more environmentally conscious and increasingly willing to make the switch in favor of electric vehicles. And as the technology gets more advanced the supply side is catching up with the demand.

The EV adoption rates are signaling a positive change in the market and bringing us closer to reaching net-zero goals in the transportation sector. However, we are still far from achieving decarbonization and need to take drastic measures in accelerating EV adoption across the board. Continuing to expand the charging infrastructure, supporting change with government policies and subsidies, as well as encouraging innovation are some of the key steps we need to take to meet decarbonization targets.

2. Autonomous driving

Electrification on the roads lays down the groundwork for further innovation opportunities in the mobility industry. To accommodate EV production, manufacturing facilities had to be redesigned and rebuilt from scratch, this allowed OEMs to trial new technologies and software in their vehicles. As the EV market grows, we can see the expansion in related automotive technologies, with innovations ranging from connectivity to autonomous driving.

The buzz around autonomous driving technologies has been around for a while; rightfully so, as autonomous driving technologies are extremely beneficial in increasing road safety and access to mobility. And 2022 was a notable year for the collective movement toward achieving higher levels of autonomy. Currently, major OEMs have achieved Level 3 autonomy, or conditional autonomy, where the vehicle can drive itself under appropriate conditions, but a human driver must always be present in the car. The main technology that allowed us to achieve Level 3 autonomy is Advanced Driver Assistance Systems or ADAS. ADAS uses radars, cameras, ultrasound, and a variety of different software to achieve vehicle automation. While ADAS is an essential element in providing autonomous driving, it is simply not enough to achieve higher levels of autonomy.

Autonomy Levels 4 and 5 entail high levels of autonomy with minimal to no intervention from the driver. To achieve these advanced autonomy levels, we need more comprehensive technologies such as connectivity. At the heart of vehicular communication technologies, we have vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology that connects the vehicle to the network, infrastructure, other vehicles, and passengers around it. V2X communication utilizes wireless communication between the vehicle and the environment around it to gather real-time data on traffic conditions, road signs, warnings, and much more. V2X technologies are also very beneficial in ensuring road safety as they include connectivity with other vehicles (V2V) and pedestrians on the road (V2P).

This technology can greatly improve the effectiveness and accuracy of existing ADAS technologies and fast-track the path to full automation. 

3. Universal mobility

EV passenger vehicle numbers are growing, but so do the numbers of EV commercial fleets. In the past years, we have seen governments deploy electric buses, trams, and taxis in attempts to decarbonize public transport systems as well as increase access to mobility. Universal mobility entails having access to transportation for all members of society. The ultimate goal is to achieve universal basic mobility (UBM) and democratize the sector so everyone can access safe and efficient transportation. Among the latest technologies aimed to provide UBM are mobility-as-a-service (MaaS), robotaxis, and carsharing services.

The emergence of MaaS is not surprising, as it allows access to transportation for everyone who owns a smartphone. MaaS is currently on the rise with multiple successful cases worldwide, namely Kakao Mobility, Uber, and Lyft. These companies have been able to integrate multiple modes of transportation into a user-friendly mobile application, making transportation easily available to people at the tap of their fingers. 

As MaaS continues to grow businesses will need assistance in rolling out their own mobility services. AUTOCRYPT launched its mobility service solution AutoCrypt® MOVE, integrating its fleet management system with big data analysis and demand-oriented service modeling to help businesses and NGOs easily establish their own mobility services and reach universal basic mobility. 

4. Increasing need for cybersecurity

As vehicles become increasingly automated and connected, the need for effective cybersecurity measures becomes more important. With the proliferation of connected vehicles, hackers have more opportunities to gain access to vehicle systems and potentially cause harm. In addition, the increased use of automation in vehicles means that there are more potential points of failure that could be exploited by malicious actors. 

One of the main reasons for the increasing need for cybersecurity in the automotive industry is the growing number of connected vehicles on the road. Many modern vehicles are equipped with internet connectivity, which allows them to communicate with other vehicles and with external systems, such as traffic control systems and other infrastructure. This connectivity opens new possibilities for vehicle operation and convenience, but it also creates new vulnerabilities that can be exploited by hackers. For example, a hacker who gains access to a connected vehicle could potentially take control of the vehicle’s systems, including its brakes, steering, and acceleration. This could result in dangerous situations, such as collisions or loss of control. In addition, a hacker could potentially access sensitive personal information stored in the vehicle, such as location data or information about the vehicle’s owner. Exactly that happened in January of this year when a researcher was able to hack into 25 Tesla vehicles and gain access to vehicle control and the personal information of car owners. 

Another reason for the increased need for cybersecurity in the automotive industry is the growing use of automation in vehicles. Many modern vehicles are equipped with ADAS and vehicular communication technologies, which can assist with tasks such as lane keeping, automatic braking, and adaptive cruise control. While these systems can improve safety and convenience, they also introduce new potential points of failure that could be exploited by hackers.

Overall, the increasing use of automation and connectivity in vehicles is creating new challenges for cybersecurity. To protect against these challenges, it is important for the automotive industry to develop and implement effective cybersecurity measures. This may include measures such as encryption, secure authentication, and regular over-the-air (OTA) software updates to protect against known vulnerabilities. 

This year has seen positive strides in the mobility industry. The expansion of electric vehicle adoption, autonomous driving, universal mobility, and cybersecurity points to an industry-wide trend toward electrification, decarbonization, and innovation. However, in order to achieve the full potential of the technological shift within the sector we must remember to support this expansion with government policies, investments, and innovation.

As an automotive cybersecurity and mobility solutions provider, AUTOCRYPT offers secure connectivity technologies that support the expansion of the mobility sector. From securing V2X communications to embedded vehicular systems, AUTOCYRPT ensures that all connections are secured before vehicles hit the road. 

AUTOCRYPT’s Smart-Billing EV Charger “Q Charger” Receives OCPP 1.6 Certification

SEOUL, KOREA, July 27, 2022 — Automotive cybersecurity and mobility solutions provider AUTOCRYPT announced that its smart-billing EV charger “Q Charger” has received the Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) 1.6 certification issued by the Open Charge Alliance.

At a charging speed of 3.3 kW, AUTOCRYPT’s Q Charger (model: ACO-100 BTW) is a Level 1 EV charger equipped with a 110-240 V standard charging cable compatible with all electric vehicles, and easily installable onto any wall outlet.

The Q Charger is a charger designed for shared usage, and users can scan the unique QR code located on each charger via AUTOCRYPT’s charger information app, after which payment will be processed within the app using the registered payment card. The charger’s built-in authentication module securely verifies the user’s identity and payment status before approval for charging. All payments will then be received by the charge point operator (CPO) or the owner of the charger, who is responsible for the electricity bill. 

“Our goal is twofold: Make chargers more available and make the charging experience more enjoyable for EV owners. For the millions of residents here in Korea who live in apartments, a lack of chargers has been a critical barrier to EV adoption. Deploying our smart-billing chargers in apartment and office buildings is a fast and efficient way to bring reliable EV charging to those who need it,” said Daniel ES Kim, CEO of AUTOCRYPT. “Furthermore, the OCPP 1.6 certification validates the safety, security, and durability of our chargers. We look forward to enhancing charging availability in shared parking spaces across the globe.” 

AUTOCRYPT’s Q Charger project is a sub-component of its comprehensive EV information and charging platform EVIQ, an integrated digital platform that connects EV owners and CPOs through big data, enhancing the experience of both EV charging and charging station management. 

To find out more about AUTOCRYPT’s Q Charger and EVIQ, contact

Trends in the E-Mobility Industry 2022

As climate change accelerates across the globe, facilitating a fast and smooth transition into electric vehicles (EV) and electric mobility (e-mobility) is now at the top of the agenda for governments, transport ministries, and the automotive and mobility industries. With tremendous investment and efforts pouring into the transition over the past several years, we have seen significant improvements in the quality, usability, and performance of EVs and their supply equipment (EVSE).

AUTOCRYPT considers contributing to the transition to e-mobility of utmost importance. That’s why we exhibited at this year’s EVS35 (Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition) in Oslo, Norway to showcase our latest e-mobility solution EVIQ and propose our proprietary security framework for Plug&Charge (PnC). Being at the event also helped us gain insights into the latest trends in the fast-evolving e-mobility industry.

2022: The Tipping Point of EV Adoption

Although it can take quite some time before all vehicles on the road become electric, EVs are dominating new car sales in many countries. Norway, the leading country in EV adoption, showed a record-high annual EV market share of 86% over the year 2021, followed by another monthly record of 92% in March 2022. At this point, about 23% of all vehicles in use in Norway are EVs. Other leading EV adopters include Sweden, with an annual market share of 45% in 2021, followed by the Netherlands at 30%, Germany at 26%, Britain at 19%, France at 18%, and China at 15%.

Although Norway is currently the only country with an EV market share above 50%, there is little doubt that other countries will quickly catch up. Looking at Norway’s EV adoption pattern, it took about an equal amount of time for the market share to grow from zero to 20% and from 20% to 90%. This 20% mark can be seen as a tipping point, where adoption begins to accelerate.

EV Market Share in Norway (% of New Car Sales)

This pattern can be explained by two reasons. The first is peer influence. Whenever a new technology is introduced to replace an existing one, a great majority of people try to wait until the early adopters have fully tested the technology before making a purchase. This effect is especially salient when making a high-involvement purchase like a car. Once one in five people (20%) start to purchase the new technology, the worries dissipate, and the general population begins their adoption. When reaching a stage where two in five people (40%) go for the new technology, people begin to feel peer pressure and refrain from purchasing the older technology due to fear of being left behind and loss of resale value.

The second reason is of course the growth in EV technology itself.

Based on this pattern, we can estimate that the EV market share in the EU (currently at 20%) will likely reach 80% in five years, and China (currently at 15%) will reach 80% in six years. These estimates do not take into consideration the accelerating growth of e-mobility technology and infrastructure so; by taking that into account, the EV market share in both EU and China could potentially reach 80% in as soon as four years.

Even in slower markets like North America, 2022 is on track to becoming a promising year. Canada’s EV market share grew from 3.8% in 2020 to 5.6% in 2021, showing great potential of reaching the 10% mark within 2022.

Widespread Commercialization of Plug&Charge and V2G Technology

The V2G (vehicle-to-grid) communication interface defined by ISO 15118 is a protocol designed for bidirectional charging/discharging between EVs and chargers. Within the standard is a feature called Plug&Charge (PnC), which enables an EV to automatically prove its identity to the charger on behalf of the driver, then exchange its digital certificate with the certificate of the charger to allow for automated payment. To enable PnC, both the vehicle and the charging station must be PnC-compatible.

The initial years after PnC’s release showed slow progress. After the Plug&Charge section was first added to ISO 15118 in 2014, not a single OEM had a functional implementation until 2018. A few OEMs began demo testing between 2019 and 2020. Eventually, some exciting results were shown in 2021. Several vehicle models – including Hyundai IONIQ 5, 2021 Porsche Taycan, 2021 Lucid Air, and 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E – are now fully compatible with PnC. The same goes for charging stations. In 2021, both Electrify America and Electrify Canada deployed PnC to their charging networks in North America. Ionity also announced in late 2021 that all their charging stations across Europe are PnC-compatible.

Although it still seems like very few OEMs and charge point operators (CPOs) are implementing the technology, it is great news that PnC is now widely available for commercial use with mass adoption underway, and AUTOCRYPT is fully prepared to implement its AutoCrypt PnC secure charging framework to protect the personal and financial data of the driver during the PnC process, as cybersecurity has become a requirement in ISO 15118-20.

As for the bidirectional charging and energy distribution aspects of V2G, there are very few market implementations today, but the industry is making great progress. Many providers are beta testing V2G chargers capable of selling electricity back to the grid, with hope to bring bidirectional home chargers to the market in the next two years.

Elevated Environmental and Regulatory Pressure

Over the past decade, governments around the world have been using the incentive approach to encourage EV ownership. By subsidizing the costs of vehicle acquisition and e-mobility infrastructure development, EVs have now become affordable for most middle-income families. The availability of charging stations has also greatly improved.

With more climate disasters occurring across the globe, governments are now pushing forward a disincentive approach by putting regulations in place to “punish” carbon emitters. In 2020, the European Union’s Regulation (EU) 2019/631 entered into force, setting specific emission targets for OEMs. For every year between 2020 and 2024, the average CO2 emission for an OEM’s entire fleet registered in the year must be kept below 95 g/km for cars and 147 g/km for vans. If the average emission figure exceeds the target, the OEM must pay an excess emissions premium (EEP) at 95 euros per every g/km exceeded, multiplied by the total number of its newly registered vehicles in the EU in that year. To further incentivize EV production, the regulation also adds a super-credits system for low-emission vehicles with less than 50 g/km, by loosening the targets for OEMs that sell more of these vehicles.

As a simplified example, a 2.5 L gasoline-engine 2022 Hyundai Sonata has an emission rate of 182 g/km, which exceeds the 95 g/km target. If Hyundai wants to avoid paying the EEP, it must sell a lot of IONIQ 5s in that same year to both loosen the target figure (to above 95 g/km) and pull its total average figure down.

Starting in 2025, the target emission standards will become stricter and set out on a per OEM basis as a percentage reduction from their 2020 starting points, encouraging continuous progress.

Adoption of eMobility in Fleets

Electric vehicles are not only becoming popular among consumers, but many companies have started adopting EVs for commercial use. Mobility service operators were among the first to adopt all-electric fleets, because EVs today are easily capable of ranges above 350 km, well above the daily needs of most MaaS and taxi drivers. Additionally, since gasoline prices around the world nearly doubled over the past two years, the electrification of commercial vehicles has become a necessary cost-saving measure for many businesses.

A more exciting trend is the electrification of heavy-duty commercial vehicles like delivery vans, semi-trailer trucks, and buses. Only a couple of years ago, all-electric heavy-duty vehicles were considered barely viable due to technological limitations in batteries and motors. Thanks to accelerating technological growth and decreasing battery prices, heavy-duty EVs have become widely available, with over 100 models of heavy-duty electric trucks and buses in the market today.

Of course, infrastructure must also be upgraded to match the needs of heavy-duty EVs. Charge point operators are expanding their networks of high-speed DC chargers with charging speeds above 250 kW, which can charge a semi-truck in about two hours. Since time is crucial for logistics companies, charger manufacturers have also been working on Mega chargers specifically designed for trucks, namely the Megawatts Charging System (MCS). These charging systems are capable of charging speeds in the megawatts range, capable of filling a semi-truck in minutes.

Lastly, investing in an all-electric fleet also gives the fleet operator the potential of participating in V2G bidirectional charging when it becomes more available in the coming years, allowing the operator to make profits from their unused fleets.

AUTOCRYPT’s Work Towards Connected eMobility

As an automotive cybersecurity and mobility solutions provider, AUTOCRYPT plays a range of roles in bringing convenience and security to e-mobility. Starting from AutoCrypt PnC, a PKI-based security module that secures the PnC charging framework, AUTOCRYPT expanded its offerings by launching its e-mobility solution, EVIQ, an all-in-one EV information and charging platform that provides a Charging Station Management System for CPOs as well as charger locator maps for EV drivers.

To learn more about AUTOCRYPT’s e-mobility offerings, contact

To stay informed and updated on the latest news about AUTOCRYPT and mobility tech, subscribe to AUTOCRYPT’s quarterly newsletter.

COP26: How We Have Overcome Barriers to EV Adoption

What Happened at COP26?

The 2021 UN Climate Change Conference, better known as COP26, concluded on November 12 after two weeks of negotiations by world leaders in Glasgow, UK.

As a member of the International Transport Forum (ITF) Corporate Partnership Board (CPB), AUTOCRYPT’s Co-Founder and CEO Daniel ES Kim called for climate actions at the ministerial meeting on November 9, collectively with other business leaders on board, emphasizing AUTOCRYPT’s commitment to decarbonizing transport.

AUTOCRYPT’s “Call for Action” at COP26

The resulting agreement signed by nearly 200 nations was a historical one, but was not transformative enough to reverse climate change, as many scientists suggested. Despite a preliminary draft demanding nations to accelerate “the phaseout of coal and subsidies of fossil fuels”, after negotiations, a revised draft tuned down the rhetoric to “the phaseout of unabated coal and inefficient subsidies of fossil fuels”. Still, facing firm objection from China and India, the final agreement was changed to “the phasedown of unabated coal and inefficient subsidies of fossil fuels”.

Implications for the EV Industry

Regardless of the rhetoric, COP26 made an unprecedented emphasis on the criticality of fossil fuel exploitation to the ongoing climate crisis. The agreement specifically demands governments to phase down fossil fuel subsidies. Currently, about half a trillion dollars in subsidies were spent by governments worldwide to lower the price of fossil fuels for consumers, more than triple the amount spent on other renewable energies.

The new agreement will likely pose more pressure on manufacturers and consumers of ICE vehicles, making electric vehicles (EV) more financially appealing to both automotive OEMs and end consumers. But setting aside discussions of money and politics—let us go back to the fundamental question: Are we ready to fully commit to EV adoption?

Are We Ready for EV Adoption?

The short answer is yes. Today’s EV has come a long way from its early days. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, EV sales have grown exponentially, even in regions where government subsidies have been decreasing, showing that consumers no longer need financial incentives to purchase EVs. Most potential buyers in the car market today are seriously considering purchasing EVs.

The booming EV adoption rate is not simply due to increased environmental awareness, nor purchase incentives and tax breaks. It is more so a result of technological advancements in EV design, powertrain, battery, and supply equipment (EVSE), all of which contribute to better overall reliability. Below, we look at how these advancements helped the industry overcome all the barriers to EV adoption.

How Have We Overcome the Barriers to EV Adoption?

1. Range

In the early days of the EV, range anxiety was the biggest concern for all potential buyers. Many feared running out of power prior to reaching their destination. In 2013, the average range of all EVs in the market was about 219 km (136 mi), less than half the travel range of gasoline-powered vehicles, which on average can travel between 450 to 550 km (280 to 342 mi) on a full tank. Given that there were very few public charging stations back then, range anxiety was a real fear for EV owners. Even though 219 km was beyond the distance of most daily commutes, long-haul travels were virtually impossible due to the lack of public charging stations, making it a significant drawback as compared to ICE vehicles. As a result, most early adopters at the time only drove their EV as a second car for traveling within the city.

We are in a different world now. For the past five years, automotive OEMs and suppliers have dedicated large portions of their R&D spending on advancing battery technology and motor efficiency. Thanks to these efforts, the median range for EVs has exceeded 400 km (250 mi) in 2020. Most flagship models made by world-class OEMs can now travel longer than 450 km on a single charge effortlessly, with a few outperformers boosting a range over 600 km (see figure 1).

Figure 1. Longest EV Ranges as of October 2021

Clearly, ICE vehicles no longer have an advantage in range over EVs. This explains why even private taxi operators are now adopting EVs considering that a range of above 400 km is adequate for a full day of operation. By now, the EV industry has largely eradicated range anxiety.

2. Charging Availability

Having a long range was not the only cure to range anxiety. For many frequent travelers, having a charger at home does not help the long-haul overnight trips away from home. In this case, public EV charging stations allow the driver to top up their car during their trip, perhaps anywhere along the way or at the hotel.

The good news is that public charging stations have become very common. As of mid-2021, the United States has roughly 43,000 public charging stations and 120,000 charging ports. To put these numbers in perspective, there are an estimated 150,000 gas stations across the US, meaning that there is now one public EV charging station per every three gas stations. Considering the share of EVs in the automobile market, the number of EV charging stations per vehicle has already far surpassed that of gas stations.

Among the United States, European Union, and China—the three largest EV markets—the US is in fact the worst performer of the three. Looking at the EU, there are reportedly 225,000 public charging ports across the continent (excluding Norway and Turkey), nearly twice that of the US. And in China, there are nearly 924,000 public charging ports registered in mid-2021. Consumers in these well-established EV markets can now make long-haul overnight trips without the need to worry about charging. Moreover, the number of public EV charging stations is expected to grow at an astonishing rate. The EU is planning to establish a network of 1.3 million charging points by 2025, six times the current figure. Compared to gas stations, EV charging stations do not require additional space and are much cheaper and easier to build; most are installed on existing parking lots.

3. Charging Time

Recent developments in EVSE have also shrunk the average EV charging time remarkably. Most home chargers (7 kW) can easily charge a typical EV from empty to full in about eight hours. Fast and rapid chargers found at public charging stations (22 kW fast or 43-50 kW rapid) can fill up an EV in between one to five hours. These are especially common at office buildings, shopping malls, and service plazas near highways, where people can top up their cars for an hour or two while working, shopping, or eating. The fastest rapid chargers today (150kW rapid) can fill up a Tesla Model S in less than an hour and add up to 160 km of range in less than 35 minutes. Nonetheless, these chargers remain relatively rare and are not compatible with all EVs.

For the average consumer, charging time should no longer pose any inconvenience. Expect to charge at home about once or twice a week, while occasionally topping up at public charging stations during longer trips away from home. With a little planning ahead, you should be able to easily blend vehicle charging into your schedule and never need to spend a minute waiting for charging.

4. Charging Complexity

After overcoming all the above EV adoption barriers, the last concern for some potential EV buyers is the perceived complexity in charging. Those who use public charging stations frequently might find it a hassle to keep a handful of membership cards or mobile apps for different charging point operators (CPO).

To simplify this process, AUTOCRYPT is actively working with the EV charging industry to accelerate the application of Plug&Charge (PnC) technology, an advanced charging and payment system that automatically verifies the vehicle when the charger is plugged in, then authenticates the transaction in the backend without the need for any RFID cards or mobile apps.

This verification and authentication process is conducted by AutoCrypt PnC, a secure V2G (vehicle-to-grid) communication interface based on ISO-15118-compliant AutoCrypt PKI technology. By 2023, PnC-enabled charging stations with V2G bi-directional charging will be widely available.

Revolutionize Transport With AUTOCRYPT

Apart from electrification, AUTOCRYPT’s effort in securing Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) and autonomous driving will make our roads and traffic smarter, less congested, and more energy-efficient, helping us accelerate our goal towards net zero.

To learn more about AUTOCRYPT’s end-to-end solutions, contact

To stay informed with the latest news on mobility tech and automotive cybersecurity, subscribe to AUTOCRYPT’s monthly newsletter.

How Do Automotive OEMs Transition to Electric Vehicle Manufacturing?

Due to growing customer demand and tightening carbon emission quotas, nearly all automotive manufacturers today are undergoing a significant transition from producing ICE and hybrid vehicles to electric vehicle manufacturing, specifically battery-electric vehicles. Last month, Volkswagen Group announced its NEW AUTO strategy, a long-term plan that projected electric vehicles to make up 50% of the group’s total sales by 2030 and 100% by 2040. Earlier in the year, Hyundai Motor Group also unveiled its plan to increase its EV portfolio from the current eight models to 23 models by 2025. Other OEMs such as GM, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Volvo all have ambitious plans to increase their EV portfolio and grab as many early adopters as possible in this booming industry.

Will Traditional OEMs Dominate Electric Vehicle Manufacturing?

Many tend to take it for granted that traditional major OEMs will naturally take over all electric vehicle productions. This is a fair assumption because the automotive industry has always had extremely high entry barriers due to the economies of scale—an absolute advantage firmly held by large global OEMs. While producing one vehicle might cost millions, producing 100,000 vehicles reduces the per-unit expense down to the thousands.

However, the above assumption has a major flaw; that is, it underestimates how different EV production is compared to producing ICE vehicles. When making a new model of a hybrid vehicle, the manufacturer can still use the existing frame, design, and powertrain of its gasoline-powered siblings, with only some modifications needed to the original assembly plant. On the other hand, to build a battery-electric vehicle, OEMs need to start from scratch and consider a whole different set of problems when designing the frame and the powertrain, such as how to best fit the batteries at the base. As a result, OEMs cannot take advantage of their existing ICE-vehicle assembly lines to make EVs, and hence lose the economies-of-scale advantage.

In fact, despite a vibrant automotive industry, these traditional OEMs are facing their biggest threats in decades, if not ever. Tesla has proven that a startup with no experience in car manufacturing can rise to become a market leader in the EV industry. Over the past few years, countless startups and even tech giants like Apple and Sony are all trying to gain a foothold in the market.

Nevertheless, despite losing their absolute advantage, traditional OEMs still have a better chance of winning the EV race as they have pre-established brands that are well recognized and trusted by consumers. Therefore, OEMs should take advantage of their beloved brands to make a smooth and bold transition into the EV game.

Brownfield vs. Greenfield: Two Strategies for Electric Vehicle Manufacturing

To start manufacturing electric vehicles, the first big decision that traditional OEMs face is whether to adopt the brownfield or greenfield strategy. OEMs that choose the brownfield strategy need to do a significant overhaul to their existing ICE-vehicle assembly line to accommodate an EV assembly line. This strategy is commonly adopted by an OEM at its early stages of the EV transition, when it does not expect high sales in the short run. However, adopting the brownfield strategy also means that the OEM must abandon some of their existing ICE-vehicle lineups to create rooms for EV production. The more EVs produced, the more ICE-vehicle sales it needs to sacrifice.

Another alternative is to adopt the greenfield strategy. That is, to establish new facilities and plants dedicated specifically to electric vehicle manufacturing. Doing so requires significant investment, and whoever has the most cash has the greatest advantage to begin with. By adopting this strategy, OEMs put themselves side by side with new market entrants like startups and tech firms.

What Advantages Do Traditional OEMs Have?

During this transition period, it is almost certain that some of the traditional OEMs will lose the race to new market entrants. However, traditional OEMs do still have certain advantages over startups and tech firms. First, their experience and knowledge in the E/E (electrical and electronic) architecture mean that it takes less time for them to design and develop new vehicle models. Moreover, the pre-established quality assurance system also ensures that their vehicles will be more reliable overall than those built by new market entrants. Additionally, the suppliers are evolving with the OEMs. Large tier 1 suppliers like Bosch and Magna are now providing EV parts and solutions, meaning OEMs with existing supply chains can save time and cost in looking for new suppliers.

However, traditional OEMs must be aware that these advantages are not as significant as the absolute advantage they used to have. Therefore, to establish a firm foothold in the new EV market, OEMs must utilize these advantages in an efficient way as early as possible.

New Considerations in Electric Vehicle Manufacturing

Amid the fierce competition, OEMs must also consider a wide range of new challenges in the EV manufacturing process. Most of these are related to charging and range. How far can the car travel on a full charge? How long does it take for a full charge? How many charging stations are available in a certain area? Can the power grid accommodate all charging needs during peak times?

To solve these problems, OEMs, charger manufacturers, charging point operators (CPO), and mobility operators are working towards a new solution that makes EV charging smart and seamless. Utilizing the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication interface, Plug&Charge (PnC) is an EV charging technology outlined by ISO 15118 to allow bidirectional charging with a seamless user identification and payment process. Plug&Charge infrastructure allows the driver to plug in their car at any charging station without the need to carry membership cards and credit cards.

To integrate Plug&Charge technology, OEMs must ensure that their vehicles have the security measures to allow the safe transmission of vehicle and payment data. This is AUTOCRYPT’s role as a cybersecurity supplier. AutoCrypt PnC secures the Plug&Charge process using a PKI-based security system made by cutting-edge encryption and authentication technology.

As the above example shows, electric vehicle manufacturing requires the collaborative work of a wide range of different parties extending into infrastructure providers and cybersecurity firms. OEMs that are willing to adapt to these changes have a greater chance of succeeding in this new market. To stay informed with the latest news on mobility tech and automotive cybersecurity, subscribe to AUTOCRYPT’s monthly newsletter.

Infographic: The Different Types of Electric Vehicles

The EV is an umbrella term for battery EVs, plug-in hybrids, hybrids, and fuel cell EVs. In this infographic we go through the different types of electric vehicles and their key differences.

(Accessibility version below)

types of electric vehicles

Electric Vehicles, or EVs, are all over the news. With demands on the rise dueto environmental concerns, we have seen many more EVs in the news and on the road.

But did you know? An EV is in reality, an umbrella term. Despite what many may think, EVs can still have a traditional combustion engine as well as a battery-powered motor, and can even generate electricity without plugging into a charge point.

Take a look at the different types of electric vehicles (EVs) and all the different components they utilize to operate properly on the road.

  1. HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle
    • Utilizes traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) with electric propulsion, meaning that the ICE charges the batteries to power the electric motor
    • Still requires fuel to operate, though it has a higher fuel economy than ICE vehicles
    • Less carbon emissions than ICE vehicles
    • Heavier weight because of the components involved
  2. FCEV – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
    • Fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen to product electricity, which runs the motor
    • The battery captures braking energy, conserving extra power to smooth out power from the fuel cell
    • Emissions are simply water vapor and warm air
    • Vehicles can be more expensive and difficult to refuel due to the lack of fuel stations
  3. PHEV – Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
    • PHEVs can be charged for power, and runs mostly on the electric motor
    • Still utilizes fuel to power the ICE, but the engine is considered backup
    • Prices can be higher than other vehicles
    • Less fuel consumption, less carbon emissions
    • Heavier weight due to the components involved
  4. BEV – Battery Electric Vehicle
    • No ICE, powered by electricity only. The vehicle plugs into a charge point to recharge the battery
    • No emissions, and lower maintenance
    • Charging can take time, and range anxiety can limit driving distance
    • Prices can be higher than conventional ICE vehicles, but more affordable models are launching as demand rises.

Secure it First. No matter what your vehicle is fueled by, without proper protocols in place, systems can be more vulnerable to cyberattacks. EVs are no exception. Particularly for BEVs, communication between the vehicle and charge point, as well as its servers, could pass along sensitive information like 1) Credit card / payment information, 2) Personal Identification Information (PII), and 3) Vehicle data.

Ensure that your charge point operator and mobility operator’s systems are in compliance with ISO-15118 standards for V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) communication. This will ensure that both the vehicle and charger’s certificates are verified and safely delivered, making your EV ride a secure one.

AutoCrypt PnC secures the EV and its supply equipment during the Plug&Charge process, providing secure communication and certificate management. For more information, visit our product page!